How Igbos Emerged From The Travails of the Nigeria-Biafra Civil War to Become One of the Most Successful People in the World
The Igbo people of Nigeria have a remarkable history of resilience, having survived a devastating civil war that lasted from 1967 to 1970. The conflict, known as the Nigeria-Biafra War, resulted in more than three million deaths and caused widespread destruction, particularly in the Igbo-dominated region of Biafra. After the war, the Igbo people faced the daunting task of rebuilding their lives from scratch with limited resources.
Despite encountering ongoing marginalization by the Nigerian government, the Igbo community has demonstrated a communal spirit that has enabled them to persevere and thrive in the post-war era. This article examines the Igbo communal system as the bedrock of their progress over the past 50 years and advocates it as a fundamental principle for their continued survival in Nigeria.
The Impact of the Nigeria-Biafra War
The Nigeria-Biafra War ended on January 15, 1970, with the defeat of the secessionist state of Biafra. The Nigerian government’s rhetoric of “No victor, No vanquished” and “Reconciliation, Reconstruction, and Reintegration” (the 3Rs) aimed to rehabilitate the war-torn region.
However, the Igbo people still felt marginalized and excluded from key national affairs, such as government appointments, infrastructure development, and resource allocation. This perceived marginalization fueled renewed agitation for self-determination and secession, with some groups advocating for outright independence from Nigeria.
The Igbo Community’s Response to Marginalization
In response to their alleged marginalization, the Igbo community sought different solutions. Mainstream Igbo cultural organizations, such as Ohaneze-Ndi-Igbo and Aka Ikenga, advocated for “true federalism” as a means to foster Igbo socio-political growth and stability. On the other hand, two prominent groups, the Movement for the Sovereign State of Biafra (MASSOB) and the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB), emerged as strong advocates for secession. However, the latter’s non-violent protests escalated into clashes with the Nigerian military, leading to their proscription as a “militant terrorist organization.”
Post-War Igbo Misfortunes and Challenges
The aftermath of the Nigeria-Biafra War brought significant challenges to the Igbo people. Apart from the staggering human loss, the war also devastated infrastructure, including schools, hospitals, and industries, hindering economic development. The expatriation of Christian missionaries further endangered vulnerable groups, and unemployment levels soared due to limited re-absorption of the workforce into the civil service.
Alleged Marginalization and Grievances
The Igbo community perceived several laws enacted after the war as discriminatory and aimed at their disenfranchisement. These laws included the Public Officers (Special Provisions Decree), the Banking Obligation (Eastern States Decree), the Indigenisation Decree of 1972, and the Abandoned Property Policy. Additionally, the restructuring of the country’s geopolitical zones led to Igboland having the least number of states.
Violent Protests and Agitation
The frequent violent protests and clashes between pro-Biafra activists and security forces have adversely affected economic activities in Igboland. Infrastructures have been destroyed, and the resulting instability has discouraged potential investors from the region.
Factors Contributing to Igbo Resilience
Despite these challenges, the Igbo community has displayed resilience, which has been essential to their progress and survival:
Igbo Communal System: Rooted in their cultural values, the Igbo communal system fosters collaboration, hard work, and healthy competition. The principle of Onyeaghala nwanne ya (brotherhood) emphasizes the importance of extended family and community in Igbo culture, creating a strong sense of belonging and shared destiny.
Ikenga and Igwebuike: The belief in Ikenga, a symbol of industry and strength, motivates individuals to excel in various endeavors, while Igwebuike highlights unity and collective action within the community.
Rebuilding Through Kindred Economic Empowerment Paradigm (KEEP)
After the civil war and to aid their rebuild, the Federal Government infamously gave each man 20 Pounds. Was this enough to help with the rebuilding of roads schools houses, businesses? Obviously not. But the industrious nature of the Igbos have since then multiplied 20 pounds to own clothes large factories in Aba Town, Electrical appliances warehouses in Alaba, Lagos, Grain stores scattered all over the country, and virtually anything that can be purchased with money. And they have owned this businesses like they were handed sole monopoly of it.
Reference to the KEEP system here: https://www.thecable.ng/a-new-economics-from-imo-state/amp
In addition to establishing businesses, their is a huge infrastructural development going on everyday in Igboland. And one secret which has made this rise possible for the Igbos is the KEEP.
The Kindred Economic Empowerment Paradigm (KEEP) or Umunnanomics is one of the ways the Igbo people to rebuild and thrive. KEEP encourages kindreds to collaborate and create communal businesses that reflect their interests, passion, and resources. These kindred-owned businesses can address unemployment and poverty at the grassroots level.
The economic system of the Igbo people is characterized by a unique combination of individual entrepreneurship, communal cooperation, and a strong emphasis on trade and commerce. Historically, the Igbo economy thrived on agriculture, trade, and craftsmanship, and these elements continue to shape their economic activities in contemporary times. The economic system is deeply rooted in their cultural values, social structures, and historical experiences. Here are key aspects of the Igbo economic system:
Agricultural Foundation: Agriculture has been a fundamental aspect of the Igbo economy for centuries. They engage in subsistence farming, cultivating crops such as yams, cassava, maize, and vegetables. Igbo farmers also raise livestock like goats, chickens, and cattle. The concept of “Ikenga” emphasizes hard work and success in farming, encouraging individuals to be productive and self-sufficient.
Communal Farming: The Igbo people traditionally practice communal farming, where extended families or kindreds collectively work on farmlands. This fosters unity, mutual assistance, and effective land utilization. The “Umunna” system, which highlights the importance of extended family and community, plays a crucial role in supporting communal farming endeavors.
Trade and Commerce: Trading has been a significant economic activity among the Igbo people for centuries. Historically, they were renowned traders who traveled long distances, connecting various regions of West Africa through trade routes. Today, Igbo traders are found across Nigeria and beyond, operating in local markets and international trade hubs. They are involved in the sale of goods such as textiles, electronics, food items, and manufactured products.
Market Days and Festivals: Markets are central to the Igbo economic system, and “Eke,” “Orie,” “Afor,” and “Nkwor” are traditional market days that rotate in different towns and villages. Market days serve as crucial opportunities for trade, social interactions, and cultural exchanges. During these market days, various goods and commodities are bought and sold, fostering economic activities and commerce.
Cottage Industries: The Igbo people are known for their craftsmanship and entrepreneurial spirit. They engage in various cottage industries, such as weaving, pottery, blacksmithing, carving, and traditional medicine. These industries contribute to local economies and showcase the creativity and skills of the Igbo people.
Nkwo Market System: Nkwo is a traditional rotating market system observed by many Igbo communities. Each village or town has a designated market day on the Nkwo day of the week. On this day, traders from neighboring communities come together to exchange goods and services, promoting social cohesion and economic growth.
Igbo Apprenticeship System: The Igbo apprenticeship system is a unique economic institution that fosters skills transfer, entrepreneurship, and wealth creation. Young people are sent to live and work with skilled traders or craftsmen to learn a trade or business. After completing their training, the apprentices often receive financial support from their mentors to start their businesses. This system has contributed significantly to the development of Igbo businesses and economic prosperity.
Banking and Investment: The Igbo people have a long tradition of informal banking and investment practices. The “Isusu” or “Ajo” system involves individuals contributing money regularly to a pool, and each member takes turns to receive a lump sum for their personal use or investment. This helps individuals access capital for business ventures or emergencies.
In conclusion, the Igbo economic system is characterized by a dynamic blend of individual entrepreneurship, communal cooperation, and vibrant trade and commerce. Their emphasis on hard work, innovation, and traditional practices has contributed to their economic resilience and prosperity over the centuries. Today, the Igbo people continue to play a crucial role in Nigeria’s economic landscape, contributing significantly to trade, business, and entrepreneurship despite a civil war that was designed to wipe them out.
For the latest news updates, follow us on Twitter @ReporterNews. Stay informed and engaged with the evolving political landscape of Nigeria.
Top 10 Places to Travel to Right Now
In a world that craves exploration and seeks solace in the embrace of nature’s beauty, travel has emerged as a balm for the weary soul.
Picture Source- Pinterest
The allure of distant horizons, the thrill of new cultures, and the promise of unforgettable experiences beckon travelers to embark on unforgettable journeys. If you’re seeking a getaway that blends leisure and adventure, here’s a curated list of ten enchanting places to travel to for an unforgettable vacation and tourism experience.
Bali, Indonesia – The Island of Gods
Nestled in the Indonesian archipelago, Bali radiates an ethereal charm with its lush landscapes, pristine beaches, and rich cultural heritage. From the spiritual tranquility of Ubud to the vibrant nightlife of Seminyak, Bali offers a diverse range of experiences that cater to every traveler’s desires.
Santorini, Greece – A Paradise of Romance
Renowned for its captivating sunsets and iconic white-washed buildings overlooking the Aegean Sea, Santorini is a dream destination for couples seeking a romantic escape. Wander through charming villages, indulge in sumptuous Mediterranean cuisine, and let the serene beauty of Santorini create memories that will last a lifetime.
Kyoto, Japan – Where Tradition Meets Modernity
Kyoto, Japan: Picture Source- Pinterest
Immerse yourself in the exquisite beauty of Kyoto, where ancient temples and shrines coexist harmoniously with modern cityscapes. Witness the ephemeral beauty of cherry blossoms in spring and the vibrant hues of fall foliage, all while indulging in the elegance of Japanese tea ceremonies and traditional arts. This is definitely one travel spot conservative globetrotter will enjoy.
Cape Town, South Africa – A Tapestry of Landscapes
Capetown, South Africa: PictureSource-Pinterest
Cape Town’s breathtaking landscapes, including Table Mountain and the Cape of Good Hope, make it a paradise for nature enthusiasts. Experience a blend of cultures and cuisines while exploring vibrant markets, pristine beaches, and diverse wildlife, including penguins at Boulders Beach.
Machu Picchu, Peru – Unraveling Ancient Mysteries
Set amidst the Andes Mountains, Machu Picchu is an architectural marvel and a testament to the ancient Incan civilization. Hike the Inca Trail to reach this UNESCO World Heritage Site and witness the awe-inspiring panorama of history and nature merging in a single breathtaking vista.
Paris, France – The City of Love and Art
Paris: Picture Source-Pinterest
A perennial favorite, Paris captivates with its romantic ambiance, iconic landmarks, and world-class art. From the Eiffel Tower to the Louvre Museum, every corner of the city tells a story that has shaped the course of art, culture, and history. Paris is the perfect travel and vacation spot for romantic tourists or globetrotters.
Dubai, UAE – A Modern Oasis in the Desert
Dubai: Picture Source- Pinterest
Dubai is a testament to human ingenuity, where futuristic skyscrapers touch the sky, and opulent luxury resides in harmony with the desert. Experience unparalleled shopping, indulge in extravagant dining, and marvel at architectural marvels like the Burj Khalifa when you travel to Dubai. It is one great place for vacation.
Queenstown, New Zealand – The Adventure Capital
For adrenaline junkies, Queenstown offers an array of heart-pounding adventures, including bungee jumping, skydiving, and jet boating. Surrounded by the stunning landscapes of the Southern Alps and Lake Wakatipu, this destination caters to thrill-seekers and nature lovers alike.
Amalfi Coast, Italy – A Coastal Gem
Italy: Picture Source- Pinterest
The Amalfi Coast‘s rugged coastline, pastel-hued villages, and azure waters create a Mediterranean paradise that enchants travelers. Explore the charming towns of Positano and Ravello, savor local cuisine, and relish the simple pleasures of life by the sea when you travel there as it is an exotic spot for vacation.
Reykjavik, Iceland – Land of Fire and Ice
Iceland: Picture Source- Pinterest
Iceland’s capital, Reykjavik, serves as a gateway to the country’s awe-inspiring natural wonders. Witness the dancing Northern Lights, relax in geothermal hot springs, and explore the otherworldly landscapes of geysers, waterfalls, and volcanoes.
In conclusion, the world is a treasure trove of enchanting destinations that await your exploration. Whether you seek the tranquility of Bali, the romance of Santorini, or the adventure of Queenstown, these ten places offer a beautiful blend of culture, nature, and history.
So, pack your bags, embrace the unknown, and embark on a journey that will undoubtedly enrich your life with memories and experiences beyond compare.
Meet The Blackest Person in the World
Blackest Person – When conversations turn to the hue of the human canvas, one inevitably conjures images of the sun-soaked landscapes of Africa. The continent has long been a cradle for diverse skin tones, with richly melanated individuals residing under the warm embrace of the sun. In the heart of this spectrum are those who bear the darkest skin, like a night sky adorned with the brilliance of stars. South Sudan, the fledgling nation that emerged from the ashes of conflict, stands as a testament to this diversity, housing some of the most deeply pigmented people on Earth.
But amidst the tapestry of melanin, one question often arises: Who is the blackest person in the world? To embark on this journey, we encounter remarkable individuals who have become beacons of empowerment in a world once tainted by prejudiced perceptions.
Nyakim Gatwech and Khoudia Diop: Shining Stars of Diversity
In eras past, the sun-kissed skin that African people wear so beautifully was tragically misjudged, relegated to the shadows by the unfounded beliefs of white supremacy. However, the tides of time have swept away these narrow perspectives, replacing them with an appreciation for the radiant beauty that resides in every shade of skin.
Among those who champion this newfound acceptance are Nyakim Gatwech and Khoudia Diop, luminaries in the realm of dark skin. Nyakim, the captivating African-American model, holds a special place as the Queen of the Dark, her skin reminiscent of the ebony night sky itself. Born in Ethiopia to South Sudanese parents, her life’s journey took her from the tumult of conflict to the United States. Along the way, she weathered storms of prejudice and emerged stronger, her vibrant melanin now a source of pride and inspiration.
Khoudia Diop, a Melanin Goddess hailing from Senegal, writes her own tale of triumph over adversity. In her youth, she grappled with insecurities about her dark skin, a struggle familiar to many. Yet, her journey led her to the world of modeling, where she became a beacon of hope for countless others. Her story resonates across continents, an anthem of self-love and resilience.
Unveiling the Darkest Veil: The Quest for the Blackest Person
As we peer into the mysteries of the deepest shades of skin, we encounter tales that stir the soul. An anonymous man from Africa, shrouded in enigma, takes his place as the world’s darkest figure. His image, a testament to nature’s artistry, has traversed the digital highways of the internet, capturing hearts and sparking conversations. His eyes, black as the night, pierce through the darkness, a sight to behold.
Yet, the realm of skin tone does not find a home within the records of the Guinness World Records. The pursuit of the blackest person eludes this establishment, leaving the title unclaimed. But the spirit of exploration endures, as individuals worldwide continue to champion the celebration of diverse beauty.
Embracing the Cosmos Within: A Galaxy of Inspiration
As we navigate the cosmos of human existence, let us remember that beauty dwells in every corner of the universe. From the shores of South Sudan to the bustling streets of New York City, the shades of skin intertwine like constellations, each unique and worthy of admiration. Nyakim Gatwech, Khoudia Diop, and countless others serve as celestial guides, reminding us to embrace our own radiance and to look upon the canvas of humanity with awe and reverence.
In this world, there is no blackest person, only a mosaic of stories and faces that together create the masterpiece of life. Let us celebrate the diversity that unites us all, and remember that beneath the surface, we are united by the same stardust that graces both day and night.
For the latest news updates, follow us on Twitter @ReporterNews. Stay informed and engaged with the evolving stories from all around the world
Top 10 Strongest Countries in the World
There are many nations in the world, and each has its own unique characteristics. But throughout history, a few countries have grown significantly powerful in a variety of areas.
These nations have made impressive strides in terms of their military prowess, economic power, and cultural influence. These strong countries influence economic trends, geopolitical dynamics, and foreign policies significantly as prominent global leaders.
Their military spending and foreign policies are meticulously monitored. At least some members of the international community believe they will keep their word when they make a commitment. These nations aim to have an impact on the global scene.
1)United States of America
The United States is the most powerful nation in the world, dominating in terms of its military might, economic might, and cultural influence. With more than 700 military installations worldwide, it has the largest military budget in the world and the largest economy in the world, with a GDP of more than $21.4 trillion. A number of the most significant cultural and technological corporations in the world, including Apple and Hollywood, have their headquarters in the US.
The second-most powerful nation in the world, China is developing its military, its economy, and its cultural influence. With over a million active soldiers and the second-largest economy in the world (GDP of over $14 trillion), it has the second-largest military budget in the world. Some of the biggest and most influential technology companies in the world, like Huawei and Alibaba, are based in China.
Russia, the third-most powerful nation in the world, exerts significant economic and cultural influence in addition to having a sizable military. With more than a million soldiers currently on active duty, it has the third-largest military budget in the world. It also has the ninth-largest economy in the world, with a GDP of more than $1.69 trillion. The Kremlin and the Russian Academy of Sciences are just two of the influential cultural and academic institutions that call Russia home.
India has a large population, a growing economy, and strong military capabilities, making it the fourth most powerful nation in the world. Its military is the third-largest in the world, and its economy is expanding quickly. With a significant role in numerous international organizations, it is also a significant player in international relations.
Japan’s robust economy and cutting-edge technology have propelled it to the fifth-ranking nation in the world in terms of power. It is a significant exporter of technology and electronic goods and has the fourth-largest economy in the world. With a significant role in numerous international organizations, it is also a significant player in international relations.
Germany’s robust economy and robust military make it the sixth most powerful nation in the world. It is a significant exporter of goods and services and has the fifth-largest economy in the world. It participates actively in international relations and is a member of the European Union.
The UK’s economic might, military prowess, and cultural sway have helped it rise to the rank of seventh most powerful nation in the world. It is a significant exporter of goods and services and has the sixth-largest economy in the world. It participates actively in international relations and is a member of the European Union.
France’s economic might, military prowess, and cultural influence make it the eighth most powerful nation in the world. It is a significant exporter of goods and services and has the seventh-largest economy in the world. It participates actively in international relations and is a member of the European Union.
In the world, South Korea ranks ninth in terms of power due to its robust economy, strong military, and cutting-edge technology. It is a significant exporter of technology and electronic goods and has the eighth-largest economy in the world. With a significant role in numerous international organizations, it is also a significant player in international relations.
Due to its robust economy, widespread cultural influence, and advanced military capabilities, Italy ranks as the tenth most powerful nation in the world. It is a significant exporter of goods and services and has the ninth-largest economy in the world. It participates actively in international relations and is a member of the European Union.
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