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West African Countries Currently Under Military Rule



West African Coups – In the midst of technological advancements, societal progress, and shifting global trends, the African continent stands at a crossroads, where the promise of democracy often finds itself entangled in a historical tapestry of military leadership. As we step into the year 2023, a troubling reality persists: several West African nations, including The Republic of Chad, The Republic of Niger, Burkina Faso, Guinea, and Mali, continue to grapple with the grip of military rule.

The echoes of history reverberate through time, likening the continent’s struggle for democratic governance to a resilient nut, its core entwined with the complexities of coup d’état, a narrative that endures even in the modern 21st century. Among these tumultuous currents, the West African sub-region stands as a testament to both the persistence of challenges and the enduring hope for a democratic transformation, despite its record for the highest number of military coups since the dawn of regional independence.

The Mali Coup

The year 2021 witnessed a significant event in Mali’s tumultuous political history with the occurrence of the Malian coup d’état. This article delves into the details surrounding the coup, its background, key players, and the aftermath, shedding light on a nation grappling with political instability.

West African Countries : Mali

The Background of Unrest

Mali had experienced a series of political upheavals in the preceding years, setting the stage for the 2021 coup. In August 2020, President Ibrahim Boubacar Keïta was ousted from power by a military alliance, marking the second coup in less than a decade. Months of unrest and dissatisfaction over irregularities in parliamentary elections and the kidnapping of an opposition leader fueled public outrage. The military’s intervention led to Keïta’s resignation, with the promise of a transition to civilian rule under the National Committee for the Salvation of the People (CNSP).

The Interim Government and Fragile Transition

After Keïta’s resignation, an interim government was formed, with Bah N’daw as interim president and Assimi Goïta as vice president. This administration pledged to oversee a transition to civilian rule, aiming to address the grievances of the Malian population. However, tensions between the civilian transitional government and the military emerged, casting doubt on the stability of the transition.

The 2021 Coup Unfolds

On the night of May 24, 2021, the Malian Army, led by Vice President Assimi Goïta – who had played a prominent role in the 2020 coup – captured President Bah N’daw, Prime Minister Moctar Ouane, and Minister of Defence Souleymane Doucouré. This swift and decisive action marked the beginning of the 2021 coup d’état. Goïta announced that N’daw and Ouane had been stripped of their powers due to their alleged attempts to sabotage the transition, and he proclaimed that new elections would be held in 2022.

International Reactions and Consequences

The international community closely monitored developments in Mali as news of the coup spread. Mali faced suspension from regional and international organizations, including ECOWAS, La Francophonie, and the African Union. France suspended joint military operations and advisory missions with the Malian military, further isolating the nation on the global stage.

The Impact and Uncertain Future

The 2021 coup d’état not only highlighted the fragile nature of Mali’s political landscape but also raised concerns about the country’s prospects for stability and democracy. As Colonel Assimi Goïta assumed interim presidency, a decree was later issued, extending military rule by an additional two years, further delaying the transition to civilian governance. This move deepened uncertainties about Mali’s future trajectory and the realization of a democratic government.

The Chadian Offensive/Rebellion

The year 2021 marked a significant turning point in the history of Chad, a landlocked country in central Africa, as it grappled with a military offensive initiated by the Chadian rebel group Front for Change and Concord in Chad (FACT). The military offensive in Northern Chad was ignited against the backdrop of the 2021 Chadian presidential election. Fueled by their discontent and opposing the election results, FACT, a Chadian rebel group, launched an audacious campaign on April 11th, 2021. The focal point of this offensive was the Tibesti Region, situated in the northern expanse of the nation.


Tragic Turn of Events

Amidst the clashes and turmoil, the Chadian President, Idriss Déby, met an unfortunate fate during the offensive. On April 20th, 2021, President Déby lost his life, leaving the nation in a state of shock and uncertainty. The reins of power were swiftly assumed by his son, Mahamat Déby, who assumed the role of acting President on the same fateful day.

Political Transition and Prospects

The demise of President Idriss Déby cast a shadow of uncertainty over Chad’s political landscape. In the wake of his passing, the nation was left to navigate an unforeseen transition of power. With a special presidential election on the horizon, set to take place in 2022, Chad stood at a crossroads, attempting to find a path forward in the aftermath of the military offensive.

Endgame and Aftermath

Despite the turbulence and upheaval, the Chadian military ultimately emerged victorious in quelling the offensive, signaling an end to the FACT-led insurgency. However, even as the dust settled on the military front, sporadic clashes persisted in the northern regions of the country. The military triumph marked a notable chapter in Chad’s history, yet the ramifications of the conflict continued to reverberate throughout the nation.

Guinea’s 2021 Coup D’état

On September 5, 2021, the West African nation of Guinea experienced a seismic shift in its political landscape as President Alpha Condé was ousted from power in a coup d’état orchestrated by the country’s armed forces. The events that transpired on that fateful day marked a significant turning point for Guinea, leading to a series of political and social changes that reverberated both within the country and on the international stage.


The Rise and Rule of Alpha Condé

Guinea, a country with a history of authoritarian rule, saw a glimmer of hope when Alpha Condé became its first democratically elected leader. His tenure, however, was marked by a mix of economic improvements driven by the nation’s natural resources and growing discontent among the populace. Condé’s decision to amend the constitution in 2020 to secure a third term ignited widespread protests known as the 2019–2020 Guinean protests, highlighting deep-seated dissatisfaction with his leadership.

A Precarious Economic Landscape

Despite utilizing Guinea’s rich natural resources to bolster the economy, the benefits of this growth failed to trickle down to the majority of the population. Economic challenges intensified as the government grappled with rising prices of essential commodities, prompting austerity measures that slashed funding for crucial sectors like the police and the military. This, in turn, led to mounting tensions within the country.

The Coup Unfolds

The coup d’état unfolded on the morning of September 5, 2021, as the Republic of Guinea Armed Forces surrounded the Presidential Palace in Conakry, the capital city. After a violent confrontation with pro-government forces, the mutineers, led by Special Forces commander Mamady Doumbouya, took President Condé into custody. In a televised broadcast, Doumbouya announced the dissolution of the government, the nullification of the constitution, and the establishment of a military junta known as the National Committee of Reconciliation and Development (CNRD).

International Response and Implications

While local politicians remained cautious in their stance on the coup, the international community resoundingly condemned the overthrow of Guinea’s government. Foreign nations called for the immediate release of prisoners, the restoration of constitutional order, and a halt to the coup. Guinea faced suspension from regional organizations such as the African Union, La Francophonie, and ECOWAS, further isolating the country on the global stage.

The Aftermath and Transition

Mamady Doumbouya assumed the role of interim president on October 1, 2021, solidifying the military’s grip on power. As Guinea embarked on an 18-month transition period, the CNRD outlined plans to restore stability and address the nation’s challenges. The fate of Guinea’s political landscape and its path towards a more democratic future remained uncertain, with the military junta promising a unity government and a consultative approach to governance.

The Burkina Faso Coup

Burkina Faso, a landlocked country in West Africa, witnessed a series of tumultuous events in recent years that shook its political landscape.

On January 23, 2022, Burkina Faso was plunged into chaos as a coup d’état was initiated by military officers. Gunfire echoed through the streets of the capital, Ouagadougou, as soldiers took control of strategic locations, including the presidential residence and military barracks. The military base in the capital fell under the control of the soldiers, leading to a situation of unrest.Amidst the unfolding events, confusion reigned as the government denied the occurrence of a coup in the country.

However, President Roch Marc Christian Kaboré’s detainment by the soldiers at a military camp contradicted the official stance. Subsequently, the military announced on television that Kaboré had been deposed from his presidential position, sending shockwaves across the nation. The coup leaders went a step further, dissolving the parliament, government, and constitution, consolidating their control over the nation’s governance.

Paul-Henri Sandaogo Damiba emerged as the key figure behind the coup d’état, leading a group of military officers who orchestrated these drastic actions. The swift and decisive takeover marked a critical turning point in Burkina Faso’s political trajectory.

A Plea for Dialogue and International Response

Amid the turmoil, a statement from President Kaboré’s Twitter account emerged, urging dialogue and inviting opposing soldiers to lay down their arms. However, the statement did not confirm the president’s detention. Soldiers reportedly surrounded the state news station, RTB, further escalating tensions.

The international community responded swiftly to the unfolding crisis. Reports surfaced that President Kaboré and other government officials had been arrested. ECOWAS and the African Union took decisive actions, suspending Burkina Faso’s membership in response to the coup.

Justifying the Coup

In a calculated move, military captain Sidsoré Kader Ouedraogo articulated the rationale behind the coup. He cited the deteriorating security situation exacerbated by the deepening Islamic insurgency and President Kaboré’s perceived inability to effectively manage the crisis. The military leaders aimed to establish a new calendar for elections, emphasizing a commitment to an inclusive process.

Interim Government and a Fragile Stability

Following the coup, Paul-Henri Sandaogo Damiba assumed an interim leadership role, albeit a controversial one. His rule lasted a mere eight months, marked by increasing unpopularity and growing discontent. The nation yearned for stability, which remained elusive.

Coup D’état of September 2022

In a surprising turn of events, another coup d’état rocked Burkina Faso on September 30, 2022. This time, the target was Interim President Paul-Henri Sandaogo Damiba. The coup, led by Captain Ibrahim Traoré, was motivated by Damiba’s perceived inability to effectively address the country’s persistent Islamist insurgency.

The new wave of turmoil began with heavy gunfire and explosions in various parts of Ouagadougou, signaling the start of the coup. Masked soldiers from the “Cobra” unit organized blockades in the city center, reflecting the magnitude of the upheaval. Clashes erupted at key locations, including Camp Baba Sy and Kosyam Palace.

Captain Traoré’s declaration of leadership came after unsuccessful negotiations between the revolting troops and the government. In his announcement, he justified the coup by emphasizing the urgent need to tackle the worsening Islamist insurgency. Traoré imposed a curfew, suspended political and civil activities, and dissolved key institutions, including the government and the transitional legislative assembly.

Burkina Faso’s political landscape has been marred by instability, characterized by a series of coup d’états within a short span of time. The nation’s struggle for stable governance continues, as its people grapple with the consequences of these dramatic shifts. The events of 2022 have underscored the challenges and complexities faced by Burkina Faso as it seeks to overcome internal strife and chart a path toward lasting stability and progress.

The Nigerién 2023 Coup

On the fateful day of July 26, 2023, Niger, a nation with a tumultuous history, found itself once again grappling with political upheaval. A coup d’état, the fifth since its independence from France in 1960, unfolded as the country’s presidential guard detained President Mohamed Bazoum. In a swift and calculated move, General Abdourahamane Tchiani, the commander of the presidential guard, seized control, declaring himself the leader of a new military junta. This marked the country’s first military coup since 2010, casting a shadow of uncertainty over the fragile democratic progress it had managed to achieve.

The echoes of past unrest resounded ominously as the nation was plunged into a state of uncertainty. The presidential guard forces promptly sealed the borders, suspended vital state institutions, and enforced a strict curfew, instilling an air of unease across the country. However, this recent coup was not an isolated incident; it was a piece in the puzzle of a larger pattern that has plagued Niger’s history.

Looking back, Niger’s journey since gaining independence has been marred by political instability, punctuated by military takeovers. The nation had previously weathered four military coups, the most recent being in 2010. These instances were emblematic of a deeply rooted struggle for power and stability within the nation’s political framework.

In the midst of this turbulent history, a significant coup attempt occurred in 2021, mere days before the scheduled inauguration of President-elect Mohamed Bazoum. This attempt, orchestrated by military dissidents, aimed to seize control of the presidential palace. Although thwarted, it highlighted the persistent undercurrents of dissent that have continually threatened the country’s democratic aspirations.

The 2023 coup in Niger unfolded against a backdrop of neighboring countries grappling with similar challenges. Countries like Guinea, Mali, and Sudan had recently experienced their own upheavals, contributing to the region’s reputation as a “coup belt.” The spate of coups underscored the fragile nature of democracy in this corner of the world.

The regional response to these events was swift. ECOWAS, of which Niger is a member, had already suspended Guinea, Mali, and Burkina Faso due to previous successful coups. Bola Tinubu of Nigeria, who assumed the role of ECOWAS Chairman, wasted no time in condemning the instability and warning against a succession of coups becoming the norm.

Digging deeper into the root causes of the Nigerien coup, analysts pointed to a convergence of factors. The rising cost of living, coupled with widespread perceptions of government incompetence and corruption, had fueled growing discontent. Niger’s abysmal ranking on the UN’s Human Development Index only exacerbated public frustration. Moreover, the nation grappled with ongoing threats from Islamist insurgencies led by groups like Al-Qaeda, Islamic State, and Boko Haram. Despite receiving military training and support from the United States, France, and Turkey, these challenges remained a significant hurdle.

West African Soil: A Battleground for Proxy Wars

Niger’s strategic importance was further underscored by its role as a key ally for Western forces combating jihadist activities in the Sahel region. President Bazoum’s alignment with Western powers positioned him as a vital partner, particularly in the eyes of France and the United States. However, the repeated coups and mounting anti-French sentiment had strained these alliances, leading to Niger becoming France’s last-ditch partner.

Amid these complexities, a new player sought to exert its influence. Russia, through the Wagner Group mercenary company, emerged as a contender, vying for power in the region. This dynamic shift, combined with Turkey’s expanding influence, added another layer of intrigue to the already intricate geopolitical landscape.

As Niger grapples with yet another coup, the nation stands at a crossroads. Its history of political turmoil and the fragile nature of its democratic institutions have been laid bare. The international community watches with a mix of concern and interest, aware that the outcome will ripple beyond Niger’s borders. As the country navigates the uncertain waters ahead, the challenges it faces serve as a stark reminder of the intricate interplay between power, stability, and the pursuit of democracy.

For the latest news updates, follow us on Twitter @ReporterNews. Stay informed and engaged with the evolving political landscape of Nigeria.

Christian Maximilian, a Software Engineer with an unwavering love for writing, has transformed his passion into a full-time profession as a Political Analyst. Combining technical expertise with creative flair, he crafts compelling stories that bridge the worlds of politics and literature.

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African Union Takes Action: Republic of Niger Suspended Amidst Political Unrest



In a decisive move that reverberated across the continent, the African Union (AU) announced the suspension of the Republic of Niger from its membership ranks.

This momentous decision was unveiled during the African Union’s Peace and Security Council meeting held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on Tuesday, August 22.

African Union:Picture Source- Pinterest

The suspension stems from the recent political turmoil that engulfed the nation, with the African Union pointing to the coup orchestrated by Gen Abdourahamane Tchiani on Wednesday, July 26. As part of a series of sanctions imposed on the francophone West African country, the Republic of Niger faced the repercussions of its internal upheaval.

The African Union’s stance was uncompromising, as it made it clear that Western nations seeking to meddle in African affairs should refrain from interfering. This firm message was directed from the heart of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, where the AU’s call for autonomy echoed loudly.

The events leading up to Niger’s suspension unfolded against a backdrop of political uncertainty and unrest. The coup in Niger, orchestrated by Gen Abdourahamane Tchiani, prompted the Afican Union to take action. Their decision to suspend Niger was not taken lightly and was ratified during the Peace and Security Council meeting in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia on August 22.

The aftermath of the military takeover in left President Mohamed Bazoum in captivity, held under the close watch of the juntas in Niger. Despite international pressure, the release of the president and his family remains elusive. This tense situation compelled the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) to intervene, imposing sanctions on Niger and establishing a deadline for the initiation of military intervention by the sub-regional body’s standby forces.

The suspension of the Republic of Niger from the African Union serves as a stark reminder of the continent’s commitment to upholding stability and safeguarding democratic governance. The swift response underscores the African Union’s dedication to maintaining order and security within its member states, sending a resounding message to the global community about the importance of respecting Africa’s sovereignty.

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Peter Obi: “I Campaigned For Presidency Because I Can Say It Any Day, I Will Solve The Problem Of Nigeria”



In a recent tweet that has caught the attention of many, @MissPearls shares an inspiring declaration made by former Anambra state governor and Labour Party presidential candidate, Peter Obi. According to @MissPearls, Peter Obi proclaimed, “I campaigned for Presidency because I can say it any day, I Will SOLVE THE PROBLEM OF NIGERIA. All these confusion everywhere can BE SOLVED, and I am PREPARED for it”

Peter Obi: I Campaigned For Presidency Because I Can Say It Any Day, I Will Solve The Problem Of Nigeria.

Peter Obi’s bid for the presidency in the recent elections stirred considerable excitement and garnered support from diverse quarters, particularly the youth demographic. The former governor is known for his progressive ideas and pragmatic approach to governance, which resonated with many Nigerians who sought change and effective solutions to the country’s myriad challenges.

Despite his extensive support and well-articulated vision, Peter Obi’s presidential ambitions faced formidable opponents in the election. The Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) released results that placed him behind the All Progressives Congress (APC) candidate, Bola Ahmed Tinubu, who emerged as the winner, and Atiku Abubakar of the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP), who came second. However, these results were met with skepticism due to apparent electoral irregularities that marred the integrity of the process.

In response to the controversial election outcome, both Peter Obi and Atiku Abubakar filed legal challenges against the INEC’s declaration. This move underscores their commitment to upholding the democratic process and ensuring that the voice of the electorate is accurately reflected. As the election Tribunal Judges prepare to deliver their verdict, Nigeria watches with bated breath, eager to witness justice being served.

Meanwhile, the administration of Mr. Bola Ahmed Tinubu has taken significant policy actions since assuming office. The removal of fuel subsidies and the decision to float the Naira have triggered mixed reactions across the nation. While these measures may be intended to foster economic stability and growth, the immediate consequences have been felt by everyday Nigerians. The cost of living has surged, and the socio-economic effects on the rich and the poor have become more pronounced.

As the Nigerian population navigates these shifts, the aftermath of the election and the ensuing governance strategies offer a critical juncture for evaluating the nation’s trajectory. The voices of discontent, expressed by citizens facing the brunt of these policies, highlight the necessity for leaders to prioritize the well-being of the populace while pursuing economic advancements. It is essential for the government to strike a balance between fiscal prudence and safeguarding the interests of the vulnerable segments of society.

The policy changes implemented by Bola Tinubu have shed light on the delicate balance between progress and the welfare of the people. As the nation waits for the tribunal’s judgment and the dust settles on the recent election, Nigeria stands at a crossroads, with the potential to reshape its future trajectory and address the systemic challenges that have held it back for far too long.

Fore more updates, follow us on Twitter @ReporteraNews.

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Youths in Kano Defy Police Ban to Protest Alleged Tribunal Bribery



Hundreds of determined youths in Kano took to the streets, defying a police ban, to protest what they perceive as attempts to manipulate the state election petition tribunal. This incident unfolded against the backdrop of a ban on protests by the Commissioner of Police, Usuani Gumel, following revelations of alleged plots to obstruct justice through financial inducement in legal proceedings.

Youths in kano

The rally, which unfolded outside the state government house, saw impassioned youths brandishing placards with messages that underscored their commitment to justice and the integrity of the electoral process. Their actions were sparked by concerns over an alleged plan to bribe the state election petition tribunal, casting a shadow over the fairness of the process.

The ban on protests was issued in response to recent revelations made by Justice Flora Azinge, who unveiled purported schemes by lawyers to disrupt the course of justice through financial incentives. The Commissioner of Police cited “confirmatory intelligence products” as the basis for this decision, leaving a contentious atmosphere surrounding the freedom of assembly and the right to peaceful protest.

This ban, however, failed to deter the resolute youths who carried a variety of placards conveying their strong stance against corruption, manipulation, and injustice. The slogans they chanted resonated with their determination to safeguard the sanctity of the electoral process and uphold transparency in governance.

Among the messages displayed, one placard caught the eye with its direct callout: “Gandollar, stop spoiling the name of Tinubu.” This highlights the allegation that financial impropriety is tainting the reputation of key political figures.

In a video circulated online, the enthusiastic protesters chanted slogans that echoed their deep-seated concerns. Chants of “No to corruption,” “No to injustice,” and “No to manipulation” reverberated through the crowd, embodying the youth’s unwavering commitment to fair and accountable governance.

Addressing the gathering, Governor Abba Kabir Yusuf praised the peaceful conduct of the protesters and assured them that their concerns would be relayed to President Bola Tinubu. This gesture recognizes the role of the youth in shaping political discourse and underscores the importance of their voices in the pursuit of a just society.

In conclusion, the youths in Kano have seized the moment to voice their concerns and demands for an unbiased electoral process. Their defiance of the police ban serves as a reminder that public sentiment cannot be easily suppressed. As this incident unfolds, it raises important questions about the delicate balance between freedom of assembly, legitimate protest, and maintaining public order. It also underscores the critical role of the youth in shaping the political landscape and demanding accountability from their leaders.

For the latest news updates, follow us on Twitter @ReporterNews. Stay informed and engaged with evolving stories from all around the world.

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